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The American Health Care System

by The Commonwealth Fund

What is the role of government?

The Affordable Care Act (ACA), enacted in 2010, established “shared responsibility” between the government, employers, and individuals for ensuring that all Americans have access to affordable and good-quality health insurance. However, health coverage remains fragmented, with numerous private and public sources as well as wide gaps in insured rates across the U.S. population. The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) administers Medicare, a federal program for adults 65 and older and people with disabilities, and works in partnership with state governments to administer both Medicaid and the Children’s Health Insurance Program, a conglomeration of federal–state programs for certain low-income populations.

Private insurance is regulated mostly at the state level. In 2014, state- and federally administered health insurance marketplaces were established to provide additional access to private insurance coverage, with income-based premium subsidies for low- and middle-income people. In addition, states were given the option of participating in a federally subsidized expansion of Medicaid eligibility.

Who is covered and how is insurance financed?

In 2014, about 66 percent of U.S. residents received health insurance coverage from private voluntary health insurance (VHI): 55.4 percent received employer-provided insurance, and 14.6 percent acquired coverage directly. (Estimates by type of coverage are not mutually exclusive; people can be covered by more than one type of health insurance during the year.) Public programs covered roughly 36.5 percent of residents: Medicare covered 16 percent, Medicaid 19.5 percent, and military health care insurance 4.5 percent. (The estimates by type of coverage are not mutually exclusive; people can be covered by more than one type of health insurance during the year.) (U.S. Census Bureau, 2014).

In 2014, 33 million individuals were uninsured, representing 10.4 percent of the population (U.S. Census Bureau, 2014). The implementation of the ACA’s major coverage expansions in January 2014, however, has increased the share of the population with insurance. These reforms include: the requirement that most Americans procure health insurance; the opening of the health insurance marketplaces, or exchanges, which offer premium subsidies to lower- and middle-income individuals; and the expansion of Medicaid in many states, which increased coverage for low-income adults. According to one survey, the rate of uninsurance among working-age adults fell by 7 percentage points between March 2015 and September 2013 (Collins, 2015); another survey found that 17.6 million previously uninsured people have acquired health insurance coverage (ASPE, 2015a). It is projected that the ACA will reduce the number of uninsured by 24 million by 2018 (CBO, 2015).

Public programs provide coverage to various, often overlapping populations. In 2011, nearly 10 million Americans were eligible for both Medicare and Medicaid (the “dual eligibles”) (Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2015a). The Children’s Health Insurance Program (CHIP), which in some states is an extension of Medicaid and in others a separate program, covered more than 8.1 million children in low-income families in 2014 (Medicaid.gov, 2014).

Undocumented immigrants are generally ineligible for public coverage, and nearly two-thirds are uninsured. Hospitals that accept Medicare funds (which are the vast majority) must provide care to stabilize any patient with an emergency medical condition, and several states allow undocumented immigrants to qualify for emergency Medicaid coverage beyond “stabilization” care. Some state and local governments provide additional coverage, such as coverage for undocumented children or pregnant women.

What is covered?

Services: The ACA requires all health plans offered in the individual insurance market and small-group market (for firms with 50 or fewer employees) to cover services in 10 essential health benefit categories: ambulatory patient services; emergency services; hospitalization; maternity and newborn care; mental health services and substance use disorder treatment; prescription drugs; rehabilitative services and devices; laboratory services; preventive and wellness services and chronic disease management; and pediatric services, including dental and vision care. Each state determines the range and extent of specific services covered under each category by selecting a benchmark plan that covers all 10 categories; most states choose one of the largest small-group plans as the benchmark. Specific covered services vary somewhat by state.

Private insurance plans sometimes use narrow networks of providers, with limited or no coverage if patients receive out-of-network care. Private coverage for dental care and optometry is also available—sometimes through separate policies—as is long-term care insurance. Private health insurance is required to cover certain preventive services (with no cost-sharing if provided in network).

Medicare provides coverage for hospitalization, physician services, and, through a voluntary supplementary program, prescription drug coverage. The program also has eliminated cost-sharing for a number of preventive services. Medicare offers a choice between “traditional” Medicare, which is open-network and pays predominately on a fee-for-service basis, and Medicare Advantage, under which the federal government pays a private insurer for a network-based plan. Medicare covers postacute care but not long-term care, while Medicaid offers more extensive long-term care coverage (see below). In addition, Medicaid covers a broad range of core services, including hospitalization and physician services, with certain optional benefits varying by state.

Cost-sharing and out-of-pocket spending: Cost-sharing provisions in private health insurance plans vary widely, with most requiring copayments for physician visits, hospital services, and prescription drugs. High-deductible health plans—those with a minimum annual deductible of $1,250 per individual or $2,500 per family—can be paired with tax-advantaged health savings accounts (i.e., deposited funds are not subject to federal income tax). The ACA includes cost-sharing subsidies for the purchase of plans through the insurance exchanges, with the largest subsidies aimed at people with incomes below 250 percent of the federal poverty level (FPL) (the FPL is $20,090 for a family of three, as of 2015) (ASPE, 2015b).

Medicare requires deductibles for hospital stays and ambulatory care and copayments for physician visits and other services, while Medicaid requires minimal cost-sharing. Most public and private insurers prohibit providers from balance billing—charging patients more than the copayment required by their insurance plan—if they have an agreement with the payer to accept their set or negotiated payment amounts. Out-of-pocket spending accounts for 12 percent of total health expenditures in the U.S. (OECD, 2015). The ACA caps cost-sharing for most private insurance plans at $6,600 for individuals and $13,200 for families per year in 2015 (Healthcare.gov, 2015).

Safety nets: A variable and patchwork mix of organizations and programs deliver care for uninsured, low-income, and vulnerable patients in the United States, including public hospitals, local health departments, free clinics, Medicaid, and CHIP. Under the ACA, 30 states and the District of Columbia have expanded Medicaid coverage to cover individuals with incomes up to 138 percent of FPL (Commonwealth Fund, 2015), and premium and cost-sharing subsidies are now available to low- and middle-income individuals through the insurance exchanges (plan premium subsidies for incomes of 133%–400% of FPL; cost-sharing subsidies for incomes of 100%–250% of FPL). Hospitals that provide care to a high percentage of low-income and uninsured patients receive disproportionate share hospital (DSH) payments from Medicare and Medicaid to partially offset their uncompensated care; however, these payments are being substantially reduced as the ACA reduces the number of the uninsured. The federal government also funds community health centers, which provide a major source of primary care for underserved and uninsured populations. In addition, private providers are a significant source of charity and uncompensated care.

Publicly financed health care: In 2013, public spending accounted for about 48 percent of total health care spending, although this figure is expected to increase post-ACA. (8) Medicare is financed through a combination of payroll taxes, premiums, and federal general revenues. Medicaid is tax-funded and administered by the states, which operate the program within broad federal guidelines. States receive matching funds from the federal government for Medicaid at rates that vary based on their per-capita income—in 2014, federal matching ranged from 50 percent to 73 percent of states’ Medicaid expenditures (ASPE, 2014). The expansion of Medicaid under the ACA is fully funded by the federal government through 2017, after which the government’s funding share will be phased down to 90 percent by 2020. Federal premium subsidies on the exchanges are offered as tax credits.

Privately financed health care: In 2013, private health insurance spending accounted for about 33 percent of total health care spending (CMS, 2015a). Private insurers, which can be for-profit or nonprofit, are regulated by state insurance commissioners and subject to varying state (and federal) regulations. Private health insurance can be purchased by individuals but is usually funded by voluntary, tax-exempt premiums, the cost of which is shared by employers and workers on an employer-specific basis, sometimes varying by type of employee. The employer tax exemption is the government’s third-largest health care expenditure (after Medicare and Medicaid), reducing tax revenues by $260 billion per year (NBER, 2014).

Some individuals are covered by both public and private health insurance. For example, many Medicare beneficiaries purchase private supplemental Medigap policies to cover additional services and cost-sharing. Private insurers, in general, pay providers at rates higher than those paid by public programs, particularly Medicaid. This disparity leads to wide variations in provider payment rates and revenues, which depend to a large extent on payer mix and market power.

Medicare’s payment rates are typically determined according to a fee schedule, with various adjustments based on cost of living and other local and provider characteristics. Medicaid rates vary by state. Private health insurers typically negotiate payment rates with providers.

How is the delivery system organized and financed?

Primary care: Primary care physicians account for roughly one-third of all U.S. doctors. The majority operate in small self- or group-owned practices with fewer than five full-time-equivalent physicians, although larger practices are becoming increasingly common. Practices—particularly large ones—often include nurses and other clinical staff, who are usually paid a salary by the practice. Patients generally have free choice of doctor, at least among in-network providers, and are usually not required to register with a primary care practice, depending on their insurance plan. Primary care doctors have no formal gatekeeping function, except within some managed-care plans.

Physicians are paid through a combination of methods, including negotiated fees (private insurance), capitation (private insurance), and administratively set fees (public insurance). Physicians can also receive financial incentives, made available by some private insurers and public programs like Medicare, based on various quality and cost performance criteria. Insured patients are generally directly responsible for some portion of physician payment, and uninsured patients are nominally responsible for all or part of physicians’ charges, although those charges can be reduced or waived.

Outpatient specialist care: Specialists can work in both private practice and hospitals. Some insurance plans (such as health maintenance organizations, or HMOs) require a referral by a primary care doctor to see a specialist, and limit patients’ choice of specialist, while other plans (such as preferred provider organizations, or PPOs) allow patients broader and direct access. Access to specialists can be particularly difficult for Medicaid beneficiaries and the uninsured, as some specialists refuse to accept Medicaid patients owing to low reimbursement rates, and because safety-net programs for specialist care are limited. Like primary care physicians, specialists are paid through negotiated fees, capitation, and administratively set fees, and are typically not allowed to bill above the fee schedule for services offered in-network. Multispecialty and single-specialty groups are increasingly common. Specialists can see patients with either public or private insurance.

Administrative mechanisms for paying primary care doctors and specialists: Copayments for doctor visits are typically paid at the time of service or are billed to the patient afterward. Some insurance plans and products (including health savings accounts) require patients to submit claims to receive reimbursement. Providers bill insurers by coding the services rendered; this process can be very time-consuming, as there are thousands of codes.

After-hours care: After-hours access to primary care is limited (39% of primary care doctors in 2105 reported having after-hours care arrangements) (Osborn et al., 2015), with such care often being provided by emergency rooms. As of 2007, there were between 12,000 and 20,000 urgent-care centers in the U.S. providing walk-in after-hours care. Most urgent-care centers are independently owned by physicians, while about 25 percent are owned by hospitals (Rice et al., 2013). Some insurance companies make after-hours telephone advice lines available.

Hospitals: Hospitals can be nonprofit (approximately 70% of beds nationally), for-profit (15% of beds), or public (15% of beds). Public hospitals can serve private patients. Hospitals are paid through a combination of methods, including per-service or per-diem charges, per-case payments, and bundled payment, in which case the hospital may be financially accountable for readmissions and services rendered by other providers. Some hospital-based physicians are salaried hospital employees, but most are paid on some form of fee-for-service basis—physician payment is not included in Medicare’s diagnosis-related group (DRG) payments. Hospitalists are increasingly common and now present in a majority of hospitals.

Mental health care: Mental health care is provided by a mix of for-profit and nonprofit providers and professionals—including psychiatrists, psychologists, social workers, and nurses—and paid for through a variety of methods that vary by provider type and payer. Most insurance plans cover inpatient hospitalization, outpatient treatment, emergency care, and prescription drugs; other benefits may include case management and peer support services.

The Affordable Care Act aimed to improve access to mental health care by establishing it as an essential health benefit (see above), applying federal parity rules to ensure that coverage is comparable, and increasing access to health insurance more generally.

Long-term care and social supports: Long-term care is provided by a mix of for-profit and nonprofit providers, and paid for through a variety of methods that vary by provider type and payer. Medicaid, but not Medicare, offers the most extensive coverage of long-term care, although it varies from state to state (within federal eligibility and coverage requirements). Since Medicaid is a means-tested program, patients must often “spend down” their assets to qualify for long-term care assistance. However, hospice care is included as a Medicare benefit, as are skilled short-term nursing services and nursing home stays of up to 100 days. Long-term care insurance that offers comprehensive care is available but rare. Most certified nursing facilities are for-profit (69%), while 24 percent are nonprofit and 6 percent are government-owned (Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2015b). Caregiver support programs and personal health budgets—such as cash and counseling programs in Medicaid—are available in some states to support caregivers and recipients of home-based care. Some of these programs allow recipients to employ family members. However, most informal and family caregivers do not receive payment or benefits for their work.

What are the key entities for health system governance?

The Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) is the federal government’s principal agency involved with health care services. Organizations that fall within HHS include the:

  • Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services;
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, which conducts research and programs to protect public health and safety;
  • National Institutes of Health, which is responsible for biomedical and health-related research;
  • Health Resources and Services Administration, which supports efforts to improve health care access for people who are uninsured, isolated, or medically vulnerable;
  • Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, which conducts evidence-based research on practices, outcomes, effectiveness, clinical guidelines, safety, patient experience, health information technology, and health disparities;
  • Food and Drug Administration, which is responsible for promoting public health through the regulation of food, tobacco products, pharmaceutical drugs, medical devices, and vaccines, among other products;
  • Center for Medicare and Medicaid Innovation, an agency within CMS that was created by the Affordable Care Act to test and disseminate promising payment and service delivery models designed to reduce spending while preserving or improving quality; and
  • Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute, also created by the ACA, which is tasked with setting national clinical comparative-effectiveness research priorities and managing research on a broad array of topics related to illness and injury.

The Institute of Medicine (IOM), an independent nonprofit organization that works outside of government, acts as an adviser to policymakers and the private sector on improving the nation’s health. Stakeholder associations (e.g., the American Medical Association) comment on and lobby for policies affecting the health system.

The independent, nonprofit Joint Commission accredits more than 20,000 health care organizations across the country, primarily hospitals, long-term care facilities, and laboratories, using criteria that include patient treatment, governance, culture, performance, and quality improvement. The National Committee for Quality Assurance, the primary accreditor of private health plans, is responsible for accrediting the plans participating in the newly created health insurance marketplaces. The nonprofit National Quality Forum builds consensus on national performance priorities and on standards for performance measurement and public reporting. The American Board of Medical Specialties and the American Board of Internal Medicine provide certification to physicians who meet specified standards of quality.

What are the major strategies to ensure quality of care?

In 2011, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services released the National Quality Strategy, a component of the ACA that lays out national aims and priorities to guide local, state, and national quality improvement efforts, supported by an array of partnerships with public and private stakeholders. Current initiatives include efforts to reduce hospital-acquired infections and preventable readmissions (see below).

CMS has moved toward increased public reporting of provider performance data in an effort to promote improvement. One such initiative is Hospital Compare, a service that reports on measures of care processes, care outcomes, and patient experience at more than 4,000 hospitals. In additionally, with support from the ACA and such groups as the Open Government Partnership, CMS is making Medicare data available to “qualified entities,” such as health improvement organizations, which are beginning to release data on payments made by Medicare to individual physicians and amounts paid to physicians and hospitals by pharmaceutical and device companies. Release of such information is intended to both increase transparency and improve quality.

States have developed additional public reporting systems and measures, including some that address ambulatory care. Consumer-led groups, such as Consumers Union and the Leapfrog Group, also report on quality and safety.

Incentives to reduce avoidable hospital readmissions among Medicare patients were introduced in October 2012, by way of financial penalties. Since the program’s initiation, 20-day readmission rates nationally have declined from 19 percent to less than 18 percent. (16) Incentives to reduce hospital-acquired conditions, by reducing Medicare payments to the lowest-performing hospitals by 1 percent, were also introduced. Recent data show the first-ever decline in rates of hospital-acquired conditions nationally (Edward and Landon, 2014).

Finally, Medicare, and the majority of private insurance providers, is implementing a variety of pay-for-value programs. Starting in 2013, 1 percent of Medicare payments are redistributed to the highest performers on a composite of cost and quality measures. The program was introduced to physicians in 2015 on a voluntary basis and is expected to become mandatory by 2017. As yet, results are too preliminary to draw conclusions (Edward and Landon, 2014).

What is being done to reduce disparities?

There are wide disparities in the accessibility and quality of health care in the U.S. Since 2003, the annual National Healthcare Disparities Report, released by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, has documented disparities among racial, ethnic, income, and other demographic groups and highlighted priority areas requiring action. Federally qualified health centers (FQHCs), which are eligible for certain types of public reimbursement, provide comprehensive primary and preventive care regardless of their patients’ ability to pay. Initially created to provide health care to underserved and vulnerable populations, FQHCs largely provide safety-net services to the uninsured. Medicaid and CHIP provide public health insurance coverage for certain low-income populations. In addition, the ACA contains a number of provisions aimed at reducing disparities: subsidies to enable low-income Americans to purchase insurance through the exchanges; efforts to achieve parity for mental health care and substance abuse services; and additional funding to community health centers located in underserved communities. There are also a multitude of public and private initiatives at the local and state levels.

What is being done to promote delivery system integration and care coordination?

Both the government and private insurance companies are leading efforts to move away from the currently specialist-focused health system to a system founded on primary care. In particular, the “patient-centered medical home” model, with its emphasis on care continuity and coordination, has aroused interest among U.S. experts and policymakers as a means of strengthening primary care and linking medical services more closely to community services and supports.

Another trend is the proliferation of accountable care organizations (ACOs), networks of providers that assume contractual responsibility for providing a defined population with care that meets quality targets. Providers in ACOs share in the savings that constitute the difference between forecasted and actual health care spending. More than 700 ACOs have been launched by public programs and private insurers, and more than 23.5 million Americans are enrolled in one (Muhlestein, 2015). Two Medicare-driven ACO programs have been rolled out—the Medicare Shared-Savings Program (MSSP) and the Pioneer ACO Program, which together encompass more than 420 ACOs servicing 14 percent of the Medicare population, or 7.8 million Americans (Muhlestein, 2015; CMS, 2015b). Patients have reported better care experiences, quality measures have generally improved for the tracked indicators, and modest savings have been achieved (Edwards and Landon, 2014).

Medicare, Medicaid, and private purchasers, including employer groups, are also experimenting with new payment incentives that reward higher-quality, more efficient care. One strategy is “bundled payments,” where a single payment is made for all the services delivered by multiple providers for a single episode of care. About 7,000 hospitals, physician organizations, and postacute care providers participate in bundled payment initiatives (Edwards and Landon, 2014).

In addition, CMS has supported the development of local programs that aim to better integrate health and social services. Among these is Massachusetts General Hospital’s Care Management Program, where nurse case managers work closely with Medicare patients who have serious chronic conditions to help coordinate their medical and social care. Medicaid ACOs are also implementing programs to integrate primary care and behavioral health services. Some ACOs are not only trying to integrate clinical and social services but also exploring innovative financing models, such as cross-sectoral shared-savings models.

What is the status of electronic health records?

The 2009 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act led to significant investment (more than $30 billion) in health information technology. The legislation established financial incentives for physicians and hospitals to adopt electronic health record (EHR) systems, under what is known as the Meaningful Use Incentive Program. As of 2014, 83 percent of physicians used some form of EHR system, and three of four (76%) hospitals had adopted at least a basic EHR system, representing an eightfold increase since 2008 (Heisey-Grove and Patel, 2015; Charles et al., 2015).

The Meaningful Use Incentive Program is designed to gradually raise the threshold for EHR functionality above which providers receive incentives and avoid penalties. The current focus is on information exchange.

How are costs contained?

Annual per capita health expenditures in the United States are the highest in the world ($9,086 in 2013), despite a recent slowdown in spending (OECD, 2015). Payers have attempted to control cost growth through a combination of selective provider contracting, price negotiations and controls, utilization control practices, risk-sharing payment methods, and managed care. Recently, both public and private payers have focused more attention on value-based purchasing and other models that reward effective and efficient health care delivery. A movement toward favoring generic drugs over brand-name drugs, meanwhile, has led to a slowdown in pharmaceutical spending in recent years, although growth rebounded in 2014. Another growing trend is the increase in private insurance plans with high deductibles.

A number of reforms included in the ACA attempt to develop payment methods in the Medicare and Medicaid programs that reward high-quality, efficient care. Some of these use pay-for-performance mechanisms, whereas others rely on bundled payments, shared savings, or global budgets to incentivize integration and coordination among health care providers.

Despite a recent slowdown in health care spending, the latest data, through August 2015, show that spending grew 5.7 percent in the past year (Altarum Institute, 2015).

What major innovations and reforms have been introduced?

The Affordable Care Act, which ushered in a sweeping series of insurance and health system reforms aimed at achieving near-universal coverage, improved affordability, higher quality, greater efficiency, lower costs, strengthened primary and preventive care, and expanded community resources, has survived. There have been modifications to the law, however, as a result of several Supreme Court decisions since 2010. Perhaps most notable was the 2012 ruling that made the expansion of Medicaid optional for states: because of that decision, only 30 of 50 states (in addition to the District of Columbia) have pursued expansion as of late 2015.

Still, since implementation of the ACA in 2013, the number of uninsured adults has declined by historic proportions (Collins, 2015). Groups that have been long been at greatest risk of being uninsured—young adults, Hispanics, blacks, and those with low income—have made the greatest coverage gains (Edwards and Landon, 2014).

In 2015, the Department of Health and Human Services announced a goal to move 50 percent of Medicare payments to alternative payment models, including ACO-based arrangements, by 2018 ( Edwards and Landon, 2014; Muhlestein, 2015). Medicare has also begun paying for doctors to coordinate the care of patients with chronic conditions. To be eligible for an extra $40 per patient, doctors must draft and help carry out a comprehensive plan of care for each patient who signs up for one. Under federal rules, those patients have access to doctors or other health care providers on a doctor’s staff 24 hours a day, seven days a week, to deal with “urgent chronic care needs” (Edwards and Landon, 2014).

In April 2015, the Senate passed the so-called Medicare “doc fix,” averting an imminent cut in Medicare physician fees that was scheduled to occur under the now-repealed sustainable growth rate formula (SGR). While the SGR was designed to counter the tendency toward spending growth inherent in the fee-for-service model, it was a flawed model. It was replaced by an approach focusing on rewarding high-performing providers and supporting alternative payment models (Guterman, 2015).

References

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Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation (ASPE) (2015b). U.S. Federal Poverty Guidelines Used to Determine Financial Eligibility for Certain Federal Programs.

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